Web21/11/ · After widespread success with its PDP, DEC made the move into high-end computers and launched the Virtual Address eXtension, or VAX. This new bit minicomputer (or supermini) line aimed to provide users with a wide array of computing resources that would be more affordable, powerful, and smaller than what companies WebThe Quarterly branch provides users with a more predictable and stable experience for port and package installation and upgrades. This is done essentially by only allowing non-feature updates. Quarterly branches aim to receive security fixes (that may be version updates, or backports of commits), bug fixes and ports compliance or framework changes WebThe Business Journals features local business news from plus cities across the nation. We also provide tools to help businesses grow, network and hire WebEmail is already registered. Enter a new email or Sign In. > Checking Email cannot exceed 64 characters. Please enter a valid business email address. This registration form is only used by external users and not employees Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional ... read more
The highly-anticipated release of MAME 0. Input options have been moved off the main menu to a submenu of their own. Megumi Rescue was exhibited at a trade show, but apparently never sold as an arcade game.
A home system port was released, but only in Japan. The original arcade game uses a vertically-oriented monitor, and lacks the life bar system and vertical scrolling found in the home version. Despite the arcade version remaining unreleased, and the home version never being widespread, the game was widely copied for TV game systems.
Marble Madness II was considered a failure on location test. A few examples survived in the hands of collectors, but the game was never seen widely. Polygonet Commanders was added to MAME almost twenty years ago, and saw sporadic progress for a few years after that. Regular contributor Ryan Holtz has written an engaging blog post about his adventures bringing it up to a playable state this month.
The Macintosh Display card, which MAME uses by default for the Mac II, now supports configuring the amount of video RAM installed, as well as a selection of monitors with correct resolutions, refresh rates and colour profiles. Virtual desktop panning and desktop zoom are hardware-accelerated. The Spectrum PDQ supports resolutions up to ×, with hardware acceleration for things like moving windows in colour modes. Thanks in large part to the efforts of Ignacio Prini and Manuel Gomez Amate, the ZX Spectrum cassette software list now includes the Spanish MicroHobby magazine cover tape and type-in program collection.
A number of prototypes cartridges have been added for the Game Boy, Super NES and other consoles. Commodore 64 tapes, Apple II floppies, and game music rips in VGM format have each seen a batch of additions. txt file , or grab a source or bit Windows binary package from the download page. Given how many exciting updates have gone into MAME 0. Only one disk has been added to the Apple II software lists, but it comes with a very engaging story involving physically damaged media and manual data repairs.
The Zilog Z80 CPU has had a bit of an overhaul this month, allowing more accurate memory access timings for the ZX Spectrum family. This fixes a lot of broken visual effects and other glitches. Four games are now playable, albeit with minimal internal artwork. SDL builds the default for Linux and macOS now detect game controller reconnection. Note that due to limitations of SDL itself, MAME may confuse similar controllers, potentially causing issues if multiple controllers are disconnected at the same time.
Issues using MIDI input or output with bit Windows builds should be fixed. As always, the source and bit Windows binary packages are available from the download page. Copyright © Toggle navigation dev. Information About History Legal Logo Contact Resources Downloads Latest Release Previous Releases ROMs Documentation MAME Documentation MAMEdev Wiki Frequently Asked Questions Emulated System Guides Community Official Forums Support Forum Chat on IRC MAME on Twitter MAME on Facebook MAME on imgur MAME on Instagram Development MAME on GitHub Compiling MAME Technical Specifications Browse Source Code Development Tools Search.
Welcome to The Official Site of the MAME Development Team What is MAME? MAME is a multi-purpose emulation framework. Supported Platforms. MAME 0. Read the rest of this entry ». This version was presumably poorly received due to the need for an expensive dedicated cabinet. An initial driver for second-generation Sony NEWS workstations based on MIPS processors. The Dracula and Game Pachinko — two Tsukuda hand-held games with vacuum fluorescent displays.
Micom Mahjong — an example of an early CPU-based TV game, and possibly the first dedicated electronic mahjong system. Three new Casio synthesisers. Several Impera Magic Card games. A few Astro Corp. gambling games, including Dino Dino, Magic Bomb, Stone Age, and Zoo. A team effort to fix some performance bottlenecks, particularly affecting the IGS PolyGame Master. SD Card reader support for Acorn computers from Ramtop and our very own Nigel Barnes. Working light gun inputs for Rapid Fire not that anyone wants to play it.
Fixes for more glitches in the ZX Spectrum family from holub. Major improvements to several IGS games from Luca Elia. Hitting GitHub pull request number — congratulations, holub. as well. Layer offsets in Slap Fight and Alcon should be fixed, and cocktail mode now works for the original sets. The communication board for Super Street Fighter II: The Tournament Battle is now supported, allowing it to actually run in eight-player tournament mode.
In this notation, the original use of PPPoE would be labeled PPPoEoA, although it should not be confused with PPPoA , which is a different encapsulation protocol.
PPPoE has been described in some books as a " layer 2. In late , the DSL service model had yet to reach the large scale that would bring prices down to household levels. ADSL technology had been proposed a decade earlier. Thus the initial focus was on small and home business customers for whom a ~1. If enough of these customers paved the way, quantities would drive the prices down to where the home-use dialup user might be interested.
The problem was that small business customers had a different usage profile than a home-use dialup user, including:. These requirements didn't lend themselves to the connection establishment lag of a dial-up process nor its one-computer-to-one-ISP model, nor even the many-to-one that NAT plus dial-up provided.
A new model was required. One problem with creating a completely new protocol to fill these needs was time. The equipment was available immediately, as was the service, and a whole new protocol stack Microsoft at the time was advocating fiber-based atm-cells-to-the-desktop,  and L2TP was brewing as well, but was not near completion would take so long to implement that the window of opportunity might slip by. Several decisions were made to simplify implementation and standardization in an effort to deliver a complete solution quickly.
PPPoE hoped to merge the widespread Ethernet infrastructure with the ubiquitous PPP, allowing vendors to reuse their existing software and deliver products in the very near term. Essentially all operating systems at the time had a PPP stack, and the design of PPPoE allowed for a simple shim at the line-encoding stage to convert from PPP to PPPoE. Competing WAN technologies T1, ISDN required a router on the customer premises.
PPPoE used a different Ethernet frame type, which allowed the DSL hardware to function as simply a bridge , passing some frames to the WAN and ignoring the others. Implementation of such a bridge is multiple orders of magnitude simpler than a router. RFC was initially released as an informational rather than standards-track RFC for the same reason: the adoption period for a standards-track RFC was prohibitively long.
PPPoE was initially designed to provide a small LAN with individual independent connections to the Internet at large, but also such that the protocol itself would be lightweight enough that it wouldn't impinge on the hoped-for home usage market when it finally arrived. While success on the second matter may be debated some complain that 8 bytes per packet is too much PPPoE clearly succeeded in bringing sufficient volume to drive the price for service down to what a home user would pay.
The second use-case, where the PPPoE protocol trio is used over one or more internet access links reaching upstream to a greater or lesser depth, is, according to consensus, only still used for historical reasons. As mentioned earlier, strangely, Ethernet MAC headers are in fact sometimes found in use with PPPoE headers even when the Ethernet protocol is not in use, not physically present on an Ethernet network. This seems to serve no purpose apart from adding further unnecessary header overhead, so-called bloat.
For example in the case, discussed below, of PPPoEoA , where there was no physical Ethernet, only ATM , not only an unnecessary Ethernet MAC layer of header overhead was added but also an additional Ethernet adaptation layer too to make Ethernet fit on top of ATM. In the second use-case, these additional protocol headers add a serious amount of bloat and so harm performance by a small amount. Since traditional PPP connections are established between two end points over a serial link or over an ATM virtual circuit that has already been established during dial-up, all PPP frames sent on the wire are sure to reach the other end.
But Ethernet networks are multi-access where each node in the network can access every other node. An Ethernet frame contains the hardware address of the destination node MAC address. This helps the frame reach the intended destination. Hence before exchanging PPP control packets to establish the connection over Ethernet, the MAC addresses of the two end points should be known to each other so that they can be encoded in these control packets.
The PPPoE Discovery stage does exactly this. It also helps establish a Session ID that can be used for further exchange of packets. Once the MAC address of the peer is known and a session has been established, the session stage will start.
Although traditional PPP is a peer-to-peer protocol, PPPoE is inherently a client-server relationship since multiple hosts can connect to a service provider over a single physical connection. The discovery process consists of four steps between the host computer which acts as the client and the access concentrator at the Internet service provider's end acts as the server. They are outlined below.
The fifth and last step is the way to close an existing session. PADI stands for PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation. If a user wants to "dial up" to the Internet using DSL, then their computer first must find the DSL access concentrator DSL-AC at the user's Internet service provider 's point of presence POP.
Communication over Ethernet is only possible via MAC addresses. As the computer does not know the MAC address of the DSL-AC, it sends out a PADI packet via an Ethernet broadcast MAC: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. This PADI packet contains the MAC address of the computer sending it. The PADI packet can be received by more than one DSL-AC. Only DSL-AC equipment that can serve the "Service-Name" tag should reply.
PADO stands for PPPoE Active Discovery Offer. Once the user's computer has sent the PADI packet, the DSL-AC replies with a PADO packet, using the MAC address supplied in the PADI. The PADO packet contains the MAC address of the DSL-AC, its name e. LEIXerx for the T-Com DSL-AC in Leipzig and the name of the service. If more than one POP's DSL-AC replies with a PADO packet, the user's computer selects the DSL-AC for a particular POP using the supplied name or service. holds the MAC address of the DSL-AC.
The MAC address of the DSL-AC also reveals the manufacturer of the DSL-AC in this case Nortel Networks. PADR stands for PPPoE active discovery request. A PADR packet is sent by the user's computer to the DSL-AC following receipt of an acceptable PADO packet from the DSL-AC. It confirms acceptance of the offer of a PPPoE connection made by the DSL-AC issuing the PADO packet. PADS stands for PPPoE Active Discovery Session-confirmation. The PADR packet above is confirmed by the DSL-AC with a PADS packet, and a Session ID is given out with it.
The connection with the DSL-AC for that POP has now been fully established. PADT stands for PPPoE Active Discovery Termination. It may be sent either from the user's computer or from the DSL-AC. PPPoE is used to connect a PC or a router to a modem via an Ethernet link and it can also be used in Internet access over DSL on a telephone line in the PPPoE over ATM PPPoEoA over ADSL protocol stack.
PPPoE over ATM has the highest overhead of the popular DSL delivery methods, when compared with for example PPPoA RFC This figure of 44 bytes AAL5 payload overhead can be reduced in two ways: i by choosing the RFC option of discarding the 4-byte Ethernet MAC FCS, which reduces the figure of 18 bytes above to 14, and ii by using the RFC VC-MUX option, whose overhead contribution is a mere 2 bytes compared with the 10 byte overhead of the LLC alternative.
It turns out that this overhead reduction can be a valuable efficiency improvement. Using VC-MUX instead of LLC, the ATM payload overhead is either 32 bytes without Ethernet FCS or 36 bytes with FCS. However, the true overhead in terms of the total amount of ATM payload data sent is not simply a fixed additional value — it can only be either zero or 48 bytes leaving aside scenario iii mentioned earlier, IP fragmentation.
This is because ATM cells are fixed length with a payload capacity of 48 bytes, and adding a greater extra amount of AAL5 payload due to additional headers may require one more whole ATM cell to be sent containing the excess. The last one or two ATM cells contain padding bytes as required to ensure that each cell's payload is 48 bytes long. So the real cost of choosing PPPoEoA plus RFCLLC for byte IP packets is one additional ATM cell per IP packet, a ratio of For some packet lengths the true additional effective DSL overhead due to choosing PPPoEoA compared with PPPoA will be zero if the extra header overhead is not enough to need an additional ATM cell at that particular packet length.
With short packets, the longer the header overheads the greater the likelihood of generating an additional ATM cell. As a comparison, PPPoA with overheads of 10 bytes so 70 bytes total fits into two cells. In all cases the most efficient option for ATM-based ADSL internet access is to choose PPPoA RFC VC-MUX.
Unfortunately some DSL services require the use of wasteful LLC headers with PPPoE and do not allow the more efficient VC-MUX option. In that case, using a reduced packet length, such as enforcing a maximum MTU of regains efficiency with long packets even with LLC headers and, as mentioned earlier, in that case no extra wasteful ATM cell is generated.
This capability is advantageous for many users in cases where companies receiving IP packets have incorrectly chosen to block all ICMP responses from exiting their network, a bad practice which prevents path MTU discovery from working correctly and which can cause problems for users accessing such networks if they have an MTU of less than bytes. The following diagram shows a scenario where an Ethernet-connected ADSL modem acts as a PPPoE-to- PPPoA protocol converter and the service provider offers a PPPoA service and does not understand PPPoE.
There is no PPPoEoA in this protocol chain. This is an optimally protocol-efficient design for a separate ADSL modem connected to a router by Ethernet. In this alternative technology, PPPoE is merely a means of connecting DSL-modems to an Ethernet-only router again, or to a single host PC.
FreeBSD is bundled with a rich collection of system tools as part of the base system. In addition, FreeBSD provides two complementary technologies for installing third-party software: the FreeBSD Ports Collection, for installing from source, and packages, for installing from pre-built binaries.
Either method may be used to install software from local media or from the network. Unpack the software from its distribution format. This is typically a tarball compressed with a program such as compress 1 , gzip 1 , bzip2 1 or xz 1.
If the software was distributed in source format, compile it. This may involve editing a Makefile or running a configure script. A FreeBSD port is a collection of files designed to automate the process of compiling an application from source code. The files that comprise a port contain all the necessary information to automatically download, extract, patch, compile, and install the application.
If the software has not already been adapted and tested on FreeBSD, the source code might need editing in order for it to install and run properly. However, over third-party applications have already been ported to FreeBSD. When feasible, these applications are made available for download as pre-compiled packages. Both packages and ports understand dependencies. If a package or port is used to install an application and a dependent library is not already installed, the library will automatically be installed first.
A FreeBSD package contains pre-compiled copies of all the commands for an application, as well as any configuration files and documentation. A package can be manipulated with the pkg 8 commands, such as pkg install. While the two technologies are similar, packages and ports each have their own strengths. Select the technology that meets your requirements for installing a particular application. A compressed package tarball is typically smaller than the compressed tarball containing the source code for the application.
Packages do not require compilation time. For large applications, such as Mozilla, KDE, or GNOME, this can be important on a slow system. Packages do not require any understanding of the process involved in compiling software on FreeBSD. Packages are normally compiled with conservative options because they have to run on the maximum number of systems. By compiling from the port, one can change the compilation options. Some applications have compile-time options relating to which features are installed.
For example, Apache can be configured with a wide variety of different built-in options. In some cases, multiple packages will exist for the same application to specify certain settings. For example, Ghostscript is available as a ghostscript package and a ghostscript-nox11 package, depending on whether or not Xorg is installed. Creating multiple packages rapidly becomes impossible if an application has more than one or two different compile-time options. The licensing conditions of some software forbid binary distribution.
Such software must be distributed as source code which must be compiled by the end-user. Some people do not trust binary distributions or prefer to read through source code in order to look for potential problems. To keep track of updated ports, subscribe to the FreeBSD ports mailing list and the FreeBSD ports bugs mailing list.
The remainder of this chapter explains how to use packages and ports to install and manage third-party software on FreeBSD. There are a number of ways to find software to install:. The ports can be searched by application name or by software category. Dan Langille maintains FreshPorts. org which provides a comprehensive search utility and also tracks changes to the applications in the Ports Collection. Registered users can create a customized watch list in order to receive an automated email when their watched ports are updated.
If finding a particular application becomes challenging, try searching a site like SourceForge. net or GitHub. com then check back at the FreeBSD site to see if the application has been ported. Package names include the version number and, in the case of ports based on python, the version number of the version of python the package was built with.
Some ports also have multiple versions available. In the case of Subversion, there are different versions available, as well as different compile options. In this case, the statically linked version of Subversion. When indicating which package to install, it is best to specify the application by the port origin, which is the path in the ports tree.
Repeat the pkg search with -o to list the origin of each package:. Searching by shell globs, regular expressions, exact match, by description, or any other field in the repository database is also supported by pkg search.
If the Ports Collection is already installed, there are several methods to query the local version of the ports tree. To find out which category a port is in, type whereis file , where file is the program to be installed:. Alternately, an echo 1 statement can be used:. For example, to search for lsof :. The built-in search mechanism uses a file of index information. If a message indicates that the INDEX is required, run make fetchindex to download the current index file.
With the INDEX present, make search will be able to perform the requested search. The text can be in comments, descriptions, or dependencies in order to find ports which relate to a particular subject when the name of the program is unknown. When using search or quicksearch , the search string is case-insensitive.
Searching for "LSOF" will yield the same results as searching for "lsof". pkg is the next generation replacement for the traditional FreeBSD package management tools, offering many features that make dealing with binary packages faster and easier.
For sites wishing to only use prebuilt binary packages from the FreeBSD mirrors, managing packages with pkg can be sufficient. However, for those sites building from source or using their own repositories, a separate port management tool will be needed. Since pkg only works with binary packages, it is not a replacement for such tools. Those tools can be used to install software from both binary packages and the Ports Collection, while pkg installs only binary packages.
FreeBSD includes a bootstrap utility which can be used to download and install pkg and its manual pages. This utility is designed to work with versions of FreeBSD starting with Not all FreeBSD versions and architectures support this bootstrap process. For other cases, pkg must instead be installed from the Ports Collection or as a binary package.
Once pkg has been installed, the package database must be converted from the traditional format to the new format by running this command:. This step is not required for new installations that do not yet have any third-party software installed. This step is not reversible. The package database conversion may emit errors as the contents are converted to the new version. Generally, these errors can be safely ignored. However, a list of software that was not successfully converted is shown after pkg2ng finishes.
These applications must be manually reinstalled. To ensure that the Ports Collection registers new software with pkg instead of the traditional packages database, FreeBSD versions earlier than conf :.
By default, pkg uses the binary packages from the FreeBSD package mirrors the repository. For information about building a custom package repository, see Building Packages with Poudriere. Additional pkg configuration options are described in pkg.
conf 5. Usage information for pkg is available in the pkg 8 manual page or by running pkg without additional arguments. Each pkg command argument is documented in a command-specific manual page. To read the manual page for pkg install , for example, run either of these commands:. The rest of this section demonstrates common binary package management tasks which can be performed using pkg.
Each demonstrated command provides many switches to customize its use. The Quarterly branch provides users with a more predictable and stable experience for port and package installation and upgrades. This is done essentially by only allowing non-feature updates. Quarterly branches aim to receive security fixes that may be version updates, or backports of commits , bug fixes and ports compliance or framework changes.
The Quarterly branch is cut from HEAD at the beginning of every yearly quarter in January, April, July, and October.
Branches are named according to the year YYYY and quarter Q they are created in. For example, the quarterly branch created in January , is named Q1. And the Latest branch provides the latest versions of the packages to the users. conf and change the string quarterly to latest in the url: line. Information about the packages installed on a system can be viewed by running pkg info which, when run without any switches, will list the package version for either all installed packages or the specified package.
To install a binary package use the following command, where packagename is the name of the package to install:. This command uses repository data to determine which version of the software to install and if it has any uninstalled dependencies. For example, to install curl:. The new package and any additional packages that were installed as dependencies can be seen in the installed packages list:.
WebThe Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frames inside Ethernet frames. It appeared in , in the context of the boom of DSL as the solution for tunneling packets over the DSL connection to the ISP's IP network, and from there to the rest of the Internet.A Web12/10/ · Microsoft pleaded for its deal on the day of the Phase 2 decision last month, but now the gloves are well and truly off. Microsoft describes the CMA’s concerns as “misplaced” and says that WebEmail is already registered. Enter a new email or Sign In. > Checking Email cannot exceed 64 characters. Please enter a valid business email address. This registration form is only used by external users and not employees WebThe Quarterly branch provides users with a more predictable and stable experience for port and package installation and upgrades. This is done essentially by only allowing non-feature updates. Quarterly branches aim to receive security fixes (that may be version updates, or backports of commits), bug fixes and ports compliance or framework changes WebMultiprotocol Label Switching over ATM (MPLS over ATM) Network Management. Network Monitoring; Remote Access; System Availability; Optical. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Spatial Reuse Protocol/Dynamic Packet Transport (SRP/DPT) Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) Quality of Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and ... read more
Installing Ports This section provides basic instructions on using the Ports Collection to install or remove software. X and lower, the following command will list the installed ports that are out of date:. Please consider upgrading to the latest version of your browser by clicking one of the following links. PADO stands for PPPoE Active Discovery Offer. To determine if there are any known vulnerabilities for the software installed on the system, run:. FebruaryMark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California. Despite the arcade version remaining unreleased, and the home version never being widespread, the game was widely copied for TV game systems. Kaiser Family Foundation. Software list updates this month include more prototype console cartridges, half a dozen newly dumped e-kara cartridges, and quite a few metadata cleanups and corrections, as well as the usual batches of Apple II floppies, Commodore 64 tapes and vgmplay music rips. The Public Binary options virtual atm system Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. Not to be confused with PoE, binary options virtual atm system. Ophelia Basgal Affiliate Terner Center for Housing Innovation University of California, Berkeley.